The Brunei Darussalam–Indonesia–Malaysia–Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area, or BIMP-EAGA, is a cooperation initiative established in 1994 to spur development in remote and less developed areas in the four participating Southeast Asian countries.
The subregion covers the entire sultanate of Brunei Darussalam; the provinces of Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and West Papua of Indonesia; the states of Sabah and Sarawak and the federal territory of Labuan in Malaysia; and the island of Mindanao and the province of Palawan in the Philippines. These areas are geographically far from the national capitals, yet strategically close to each other. These states and provinces account for over 60% of the land area of the BIMP-EAGA countries; yet they make up less than 20% of their population and 18% of the labor force.
Through BIMP-EAGA, the four countries want to generate balanced and inclusive growth as well as contribute to regional economic integration in the ASEAN Economic Community. They want to boost trade, tourism, and investments by easing the movement of people, goods, and services across borders; making the best use of common infrastructure and natural resources; and taking the fullest advantage of economic complementation.
Thanks to strong ownership and commitment, as demonstrated by the financial, human and technical resources put in by the member governments, BIMP-EAGA has grown over the last 25 years. In 2017, BIMP-EAGA’s combined gross domestic product reached $287 billion, merchandise trade surged 21.5%, and annual tourist arrivals grew 6.6%.
Launched In 1994, the BIMP-EAGA initiative boosts growth in trade, investments, and tourism through new intra-region shipping routes and air links as well as power interconnection projects. Other key areas of cooperation include agribusiness, tourism, the environment, and socio-cultural education.
Source from BIMP-EAGA website
To stimulate economic growth, Brunei Darussalam launched a long-term development plan called Wawasan Brunei 2035 (Brunei Vision 2035). Its goals are to enhance education and skills development and improve the quality of life in the country to the highest international standards as well as develop a dynamic and sustainable economy with an income per capita that is comparable to top countries in the world.
In January 2021, the country launched its Economic Blueprint: Towards a Dynamic and Sustainable Economy, which supports the third goal of Brunei Vision 2035. It will help transform a highly dependent oil and gas economy into a dynamic and sustainable economy that provides more high-value employment opportunities and harnesses the latest technology in line with the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
The entire sultanate of Brunei Darussalam is included in BIMP-EAGA. Under the cooperation initiative, the sultanate is part of the development of the West Borneo Economic Corridor (WBEC), which also includes West Kalimantan in Indonesia, and Sarawak and Sabah in Malaysia.
Brunei Darussalam is a country with the total land area of 5,770 km2 and shares a land border with Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Brunei Darussalam has a population of 428,962 people in 2018. The country is independent from energy import, due to its vast domestically available oil and gas reserves. In 2018, the (PPP constant price 2011) accounted is around 31.21 billion USD, which 73 % of GDP is still from oil revenues .
Despite relies massively on fossil fuel, the country intends to diversify its energy mix by incorporating renewable energy, specifically solar PV. Brunei also planned to develop the Temburong Smart City where this city would be powered mostly from solar. According to ASEAN Renewable Energy Development Report, the region’s average annual solar energy potential is between 400 to 500 W/m2. Brunei Darussalam has zero percentage of citizens living without electricity, with electricity power consumption of 8,247 kWh per capita in 2017 and the electricity price for residential in the country was around 0.056 USD/kWh . The price of electricity in Brunei is relatively cheap, despite high income, leading the electricity consumption per capita is the second highest in Southeast Asia in 2017.
Source from BIMP-EAGA website
Indonesia has made remarkable progress in its social and economic development in the past few decades. Since the 1998 Asian financial crisis, its economy has grown tenfold and per capita income eightfold. Indonesia reached middle-income status in 2004 and became a G20 member in 2008. Poverty levels fell to single-digit levels for the first time in 2018.
Despite this progress, fostering inclusive and sustainable economic growth remains a challenge in Indonesia. Poverty is still significant, inequality and regional income disparities are relatively high, and quality jobs are scarce. To address these challenges, the Government of Indonesia’s medium-term development priorities include building economic resilience to achieve quality and equitable economic growth; promoting economic infrastructure and basic services; developing quality and competitive human capital; addressing environment and climate change; and supporting regional development.
In Indonesia, BIMP-EAGA covers the provinces of Kalimantan, Sulawesi, the island chain of Maluku, and Papua.
West Kalimantan is part of the West Borneo Economic Corridor (WBEC), which also includes Brunei Darussalam and Sarawak and Sabah in Malaysia.
North Sulawesi is part of the Greater Sulu–Sulawesi Corridor (GSSC), which also includes Sabah in Malaysia, and Mindanao and Palawan in the Philippines.
Indonesia is an archipelagic country with a total area of 1,913,580 km2, sharing the maritime border with Singapore and Malaysia. The country has the biggest population in ASEAN member state with a total population of 267 million people (2018). With the GDP (PPP constant price 2011) is USD 3.1 trillion and annual growth of 5.8% in 2018 , Indonesia has the highest GDP in the ASEAN region. The electrification rate was 95.4% in 2017. The country made huge investment to fulfil this target, the latest update of 2019, there are 98.7% people have access to electricity.
Meanwhile, Indonesia has been shown efforts to add more renewables to its energy mix, to achieve the target of 23% Renewable Energy (RE) share in the primary energy mix by 2025. Among RE, hydropower currently holds the most share of primary energy (36.5%), followed by Biomass (35.2%), Geothermal (15.5%), and Biofuel (12.8%). For Solar, in 2018 a total of 28.2 MW of power plants and 7.58 MW of Lampu Tenaga Surya Hemat Energi (LTSHE) have been installed for off-grid area, while a total of of Solar capacity are connected to the grid. The electric power consumption is about 822 kWh per capita and the electricity for residential is sold around 0.073 USD/kWh .
Source from BIMP-EAGA website
Rapid growth since independence, and especially in the 1980s, enabled Malaysia to transition from an agriculture-based economy to a semi-industrialized nation by the new millennium. Agriculture had the highest contribution to the economy at around 30% in the 1970s but was superseded by services, accounting for over 50% of economic activity by 2019.
Robust growth continued in the past 2 decades, and while growth narrowed in recent years, private consumption remained the driver of economic expansion, with significant contributions from tourism, small and medium-sized enterprises, and knowledge-based services. Inflation remained low.
As an upper middle-income country, the country’s poverty rate is low at 0.4% by 2016 when compared to 49% in 1970. With much progress also being made toward increasing incomes, Malaysia’s focus has shifted to addressing the well-being of the population. Reforms have been initiated toward increasing private investment, improving productivity, and empowering human capital. The Government of Malaysia also places strong emphasis on promoting regional Malaysia cooperation, particularly initiatives that enhance environmental sustainability.
In Malaysia, BIMP-EAGA covers the states of Sabah and Sarawak and the federal territory of Labuan.
Sarawak and Sabah are part of the West Borneo Economic Corridor (WBEC), which also includes Brunei Darussalam and West Kalimantan in Indonesia.
Sabah is part of the Greater Sulu–Sulawesi Corridor (GSSC), which also includes North Sulawesi in Indonesia, and Mindanao and Palawan in the Philippines.
Malaysia has a total land area of 330,345 km2, consisting of Peninsular Malaysia (mainland) and Malaysian Borneo (island), sharing a maritime and land border with Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. In 2018, the population is counted over 31.5 million people. The GDP (PPP constant price 2011) of Malaysia reached USD 873.3 billion in 2018 , placing the country as the third largest economy in the ASEAN after Indonesia and Thailand. The electrification rate in Malaysia is at 100%, with the purchasing residential electricity tariff of 0.069 USD/kWh. Electricity power consumption of the inhabitants is about 4,636 kWh per capita.
The Malaysian government has an ambitious target of increasing its power capacity mix from Renewable Energy (RE) from 5% in 2017 to 20% by 2025. The country has developed solar PV to 395 MW in 2017, Biomass at 784 MW, small Hydro at 292 MW, then installed 80MW Biogas power plant to greening its grid system .
 National account with conversion value of WDI
Source from BIMP-EAGA website
The Philippines has maintained its position as one of the fastest-growing economies in Southeast Asia in recent years, with average annual gross domestic product growth at 6.3% since 2010 against 4.5% in 2000 to 2009.
The Government of the Philippines wants to attain upper middle-income status in 2020, rooted in inclusive growth, a socially responsible society, and a globally competitive economy. In its Philippine Development Plan 2017–2022, the government placed emphasis on addressing underinvestment in infrastructure, tackling poverty and income inequality, and reducing regional growth disparities.
In the Philippines, BIMP-EAGA covers the entire island of Mindanao and the island province of Palawan.
Mindanao and Palawan are part of the Greater Sulu–Sulawesi Corridor (GSSC), which also includes North Sulawesi in Indonesia and Sabah in Malaysia.
The Philippines is an archipelago country that shares a maritime border with China and Indonesia and occupies a total land area of 300,000 km2. In 2018 the total population in the country is 106.6 million people. The access to electricity is 93% of population in 2017, Philippines endeavour to provide full electricity access in the upcoming years.
The electricity consumption in the country is 741.5 kWh per capita, with the tariff of about 0.10 USD/kWh. Based on Philippines RE target which refers to National Renewable Energy Program (NREP), RE is tripled the 2010 installed capacity, 5.4GW to 15.3GW by 2030. Currently, the installed capacity is dominated by coal with 40% share followed oil with 18%, for RE side the high contribution is from hydropower with 15.5% and geothermal (8.2%) .